- Date of birth: In January 23, 1897(1897-01-23) Cuttack, Orissa.
- Passed Indian Civil Services Exam.
- Elected Congress President in 1938 and 1939.
- Formed a new party All India Forward block.
- Organized Azad Hind Fauj to overthrow British Empire from India.
- Died on 18 August 1945 (officially) Taiwan.
Subhas Chandra Bose, affectionately called as Netaji, was one of the most prominent leaders of Indian freedom struggle. Though Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru have garnered much of the credit for successful culmination of Indian freedom struggle, the contribution of Subash Chandra Bose is no less. He has been denied his rightful place in the annals of Indian history. He founded Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) to overthrow British Empire from India and came to acquire legendary status among Indian masses.
Subhas Chandra Bose’s father Janaki Nath Bose was a famous lawyer and his mother Prabhavati Devi was a pious and religious lady. Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth child among fourteen siblings. Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student right from the childhood. He topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province and graduated with a First Class in Philosophy from the Scottish Churches College in Calcutta. He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda’s teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. To fulfill his parents wishes he went to England in 1919 to compete for Indian Civil Services. In England he appeared for the Indian Civil Service competitive examination in 1920, and came out fourth in order of merit. However, Subhas Chandra Bose was deeply disturbed by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre, and left his Civil Services apprenticeship midway to return to India in 1921.
After returning to India Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose came under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi and joined the Indian National Congress. On Gandhiji’s instructions, he started working under Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, whom he later acknowledged his political guru. Soon he showed his leadership mettle and gained his way up in the Congress’ hierarchy. In 1928 the Motilal Nehru Committee appointed by the Congress declared in favour of Domination Status, but Subhas Chandra Bose along with Jawaharlal Nehru opposed it, and both asserted that they would be satisfied with nothing short of complete independence for India. Subhas also announced the formation of the Independence League. Subhas Chandra Bose was jailed during Civil Disobedience movement in 1930. He was released in 1931 after Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed. He protested against the Gandhi-Irwin pact and opposed the suspension of Civil Disobedience movement specially when Bhagat Singh and his associates were hanged.
Subash Chandra Bose was soon arrested again under the infamous Bengal Regulation. After an year he was released on medical grounds and was banished from India to Europe. He took steps to establish centres in different European capitals with a view to promoting politico-cultural contacts between India and Europe. Defying the ban on his entry to India, Subash Chandra Bose returned to India and was again arrested and jailed for a year. After the General Elections of 1937, Congress came to power in seven states and Subash Chandra Bose was released. Shortly afterward he was elected President of the Haripura Congress Session in 1938. During his term as Congress President, he talked of planning in concrete terms, and set up a National planning Committee in October that year. At the end of his first term, the presidential election to the Tripuri Congress session took place early 1939. Subhas Chandra Bose was re-elected, defeating Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya who had been backed by Mahatma Gandhi and the Congress Working Committee. Clouds of World War II were on the horizon and he brought a resolution to give the British six months to hand India over to the Indians, failing which there would be a revolt. There was much opposition to his rigid stand, and he resigned from the post of president and formed a progressive group known as the Forward Block.
Subhas Chandra Bose now started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and men for the great war. There was a tremendous response to his call and he was put under house arrest in Calcutta. In January 1941, Subhas Chandra Bose disappeared from his home in Calcutta and reached Germany via Afghanistan. Working on the maxim that “an enemy’s enemy is a friend”, he sought cooperation of Germany and Japan against British Empire. In January 1942, he began his regular broadcasts from Radio Berlin, which aroused tremendous enthusiasm in India. In July 1943, he arrived in Singapore from Germany. In Singapore he took over the reins of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia from Rash Behari Bose and organised the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) comprising mainly of Indian prisoners of war. He was hailed as Netaji by the Army as well as by the Indian civilian population in East Asia. Azad Hind Fauj proceeded towards India to liberate it from British rule. Enroute it liberated Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The I.N.A. Head quarters was shifted to Rangoon in January 1944. Azad Hind Fauj crossed the Burma Border, and stood on Indian soil on March 18, 1944.
However, defeat of Japan and Germany in the Second World War forced INA to retreat and it could not achieve its objective. Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa) on August 18, 1945. Though it is widely believed that he was still alive after the air crash not much information could be found about him.
Subhash Chandra Bose Biography
Subhash Chandra Bose is one of the most dynamic leaders of India's struggle of independence. He is popularly known as Netaji. He was born in Cuttack, in Orissa on January 23, 1897 to Janaki Nath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. His father was a famous lawyer and his mother was a religious lady. Among the fourteen siblings, he was the ninth child.
Right from his childhood he was a bright student and was a topper in the matriculation examination from the whole of Calcutta province. He graduated from the Scottish Church College in Kolkata, West Bengal with a First Class degree in Philosophy. Influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda, he was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. He went to England to accomplish his parents' desire to appear in the Indian Civil Services. In 1920 he appeared for the competitive examination and stood fourth in the order of merit. Deeply moved by the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre in Punjab, Subhash Chandra Bose left his Civil Services apprenticeship midway and returned to India.
After he returned to India, Subhash Chandra Bose was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi views. He then joined the Indian National Congress and worked under the leadership of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, who later became his political guru. He opposed the Dominion Status for India declared by the Congress under the guidance of the Motilal Nehru Committee. They were in favor of complete independence and nothing else. In 1930, during the Civil Disobedience he was sent to jail and released only after the Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed in 1931.
Subash Chandra Bose was exiled from India to Europe; he took advantage of this opportunity and tried to establish political and cultural ties between India and Europe by forming centers in the various capital cities of Europe. He was jailed for a year for not obeying the ban on his entry to India. Congress was elected in seven states during the general elections of 1937 and he was released. Defying the ban on his entry to India, Subash Chandra Bose returned to India and was again arrested and sent to jail for a year. After the General Elections of 1937, Congress came to power in seven states and he was released. Next year he was elected as the President of the Haripura Congress Session. He took a very stern decision and brought a resolution and asked Britishers to hand India over to the Indians within six months.
Following opposition to his rigid stand, he resigned from the post of president and formed the Forward Block. He fled to Germany via Afghanistan and tried to persuade Germany and Japan to cooperating against the British Empire. He then moved to Singapore from Germany in July 1943 and formed the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army). The army comprised mainly of Indians who were prisoners of war. The army crossed the Burma border, and reached the Indian soil on March 18, 1944.
Japan and Germany were defeated in the Second World War and a result the INA could not fulfill its objective. On August 18, 1945, Subhash Chandra Bose was declared killed in an air crash over Taipei, Taiwan (Formosa). But there are people who believe that he is still alive and many Commissions were set up to find the truth but nothing could be found about his whereabouts.
Facts and Information about Subhash Chandra Bose
|Born||23 January 1897|
|Place of Birth||Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, British India|
|Died||August 18, 1945 (aged 48), Taipei (Taihoku), Japanese Taiwan|
|Spouse Name||or companion, Emilie Schenkl (secretly married without ceremony or witnesses in 1937, unacknowledged publicly by Bose|
|Chidren||Anita Bose Pfaff|
|Education||Alma mater University of Calcutta and University of Cambridge. He continued his studies at this school which was run by the Baptist Mission up to 1909 and then shifted to the Ravenshaw Collegiate School. The day Subhas was admitted to this school, Beni Madhab Das, the headmaster, understood how brilliant and scintillating his genius was. After securing the second position in the matriculation examination in 1913, he got admitted to the Presidency College where he studied briefly|
|Profession before joining politics||He then joined the Indian National Congress and worked under the leadership of Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, who later became his political guru. He opposed the Dominion Status for India declared by the Congress under the guidance of the Motilal Nehru Committee. They were in favor of complete independence and nothing else. In 1930, during the Civil Disobedience he was sent to jail and released only after the Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed in 1931.|
|Known for contribution as||Figure of Indian independence movement|
|Political Career||Indian National Congress 1921 -1940,|
Last Updated on : January 20, 2018